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III.A.2.N.c. Sclerophyllous temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

III.A.2.N.c. Sclerophyllous temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

A.785 Quercus virginiana - Ilex vomitoria - (Morella cerifera) Shrubland Alliance


Live Oak - Yaupon - (Wax-myrtle) Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance consists of upland maritime dune shrublands of southeastern Coastal Plain (southern, mid-Atlantic, and Gulf coasts). Vegetation of this alliance is characteristically 0.5-3 m tall, typically with a single, extremely dense stratum, with Quercus virginiana dominant or codominant, and often also with species such as Ilex vomitoria, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Quercus geminata (in range), Serenoa repens (in range), Smilax auriculata, Prunus caroliniana, Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola, Smilax bona-nox, Persea borbonia, and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis. It occupies linear strands on frontal dune ridges and on the leeward sides and tops of rear dunes, where it is protected from salt-water flooding and extreme salt spray. It also occurs on low dunes and rises on the back sides of barrier islands, as upland rises associated with Juncus roemerianus marshes. Examples of this vegetation in Mississippi contain Baccharis halimifolia.

Environment:



Vegetation:

Vegetation of this alliance is characteristically 0.5-3 m tall, typically with a single, extremely dense stratum, with Quercus virginiana dominant or codominant, and often also with species such as Ilex vomitoria, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Quercus geminata (in range), Serenoa repens (in range), Smilax auriculata, Prunus caroliniana, Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola, Smilax bona-nox, Persea borbonia, and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis. It occupies linear strands on frontal dune ridges and on the leeward sides and tops of rear dunes, where it is protected from salt-water flooding and extreme salt spray. It also occurs on low dunes and rises on the back sides of barrier islands, as upland rises associated with Juncus roemerianus marshes. Examples of this vegetation in Mississippi contain Baccharis halimifolia.

Dynamics:



Similar Alliances:

Morella cerifera Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1906)--includes related vegetation north of the distribution of Ilex vomitoria.

Similar Alliance Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance consists of upland maritime dune shrublands of southeastern Coastal Plain (southern, mid-Atlantic, and Gulf coasts).

Nations:

US

Subnations:

AL, FL, GA, LA?, MS, NC, SC, VA

TNC Ecoregions:

53:C, 55:?, 56:C, 57:C

USFS Ecoregions:

232Cb:CCC, 232Ce:CCC, 232Ci:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

DOD (Camp Lejeune?); NPS (Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, Gulf Islands); USFWS (Back Bay?, Bon Secour, Cape Romain?, Pea Island?)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

A.S. Weakley 8-94, mod. A.S. Weakley

References:

Ambrose 1990a, Au 1974, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1990, Hosier 1975, Sandifer et al. 1980, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Wharton 1978, Wieland 1994b

[CEGL003813] Ilex vomitoria - Quercus (geminata, virginiana) - Morella cerifera - Serenoa repens Shrubland


Translated Name:

Yaupon - (Sand Live Oak, Live Oak) - Wax-myrtle - Saw Palmetto Shrubland

Common Name:

Gulf Coast Dune Oak - Yaupon Scrub



Ecological System(s):

Mississippi Sound Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh (CES203.303)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

A.S. Weakley and M. Pyne

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This association consists of upland shrub thickets dominated by variable mixtures of Ilex vomitoria, Quercus virginiana, Quercus geminata, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Serenoa repens, and Baccharis halimifolia. It occurs on rises in Juncus roemerianus marshes, and in other upland but extreme situations on barrier islands and barrier spits. It is likely maintained by edaphic conditions, as well as by periodic catastrophic disturbance of storm flooding and salt kill. Occasional low stature Pinus elliottii may be present.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:



Global Environment:



Vegetation Description



Global Vegetation:



Global Dynamics:



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G2G3 (31-Jan-2001). This community type is restricted to barrier islands and barrier spits along the Gulf Coast, from the panhandle of Florida west to Mississippi and perhaps the Chandeleur Islands of Louisiana. Total acreage is small, and some has been lost to coastal development. Some protected examples occur at Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge (Alabama) and Gulf Islands National Seashore (Mississippi).

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:



Global Related Concepts:



Classification & Other Comments



Global Classification Comments:

This association may occur in Louisiana in the Chandeleurs. Some Florida Gulf Coast examples apparently lack oaks.

Element Distribution



Global Range:

This community type is restricted to barrier islands and barrier spits along the Gulf Coast, from the panhandle of Florida west to Mississippi and perhaps the Chandeleur Islands of Louisiana.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

AL, FL, LA?, MS, SC?

TNC Ecoregions:

53:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:



USFS Ecoregions:

232Dc:CCC, 232Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Gulf Islands); USFWS (Bon Secour)

Element Sources


Global Description Author(s):


References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Nelson 1986 . . . . . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Schotz pers. comm. . . . . . . . . .



Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .
?


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